webdriver.remote.webdriver

The WebDriver implementation.

Module Contents

Classes

WebDriver(self,command_executor=”http://127.0.0.1:4444/wd/hub”,desired_capabilities=None,browser_profile=None,proxy=None,keep_alive=False,file_detector=None,options=None) Controls a browser by sending commands to a remote server.

Functions

_make_w3c_caps(caps) Makes a W3C alwaysMatch capabilities object.
_make_w3c_caps(caps)

Makes a W3C alwaysMatch capabilities object.

Filters out capability names that are not in the W3C spec. Spec-compliant drivers will reject requests containing unknown capability names.

Moves the Firefox profile, if present, from the old location to the new Firefox options object.

Args:
  • caps - A dictionary of capabilities requested by the caller.
class WebDriver(command_executor="http://127.0.0.1:4444/wd/hub", desired_capabilities=None, browser_profile=None, proxy=None, keep_alive=False, file_detector=None, options=None)

Controls a browser by sending commands to a remote server. This server is expected to be running the WebDriver wire protocol as defined at https://github.com/SeleniumHQ/selenium/wiki/JsonWireProtocol

Attributes:
  • session_id - String ID of the browser session started and controlled by this WebDriver.
  • capabilities - Dictionaty of effective capabilities of this browser session as returned
    by the remote server. See https://github.com/SeleniumHQ/selenium/wiki/DesiredCapabilities
  • command_executor - remote_connection.RemoteConnection object used to execute commands.
  • error_handler - errorhandler.ErrorHandler object used to handle errors.
__init__(command_executor="http://127.0.0.1:4444/wd/hub", desired_capabilities=None, browser_profile=None, proxy=None, keep_alive=False, file_detector=None, options=None)

Create a new driver that will issue commands using the wire protocol.

Args:
  • command_executor - Either a string representing URL of the remote server or a custom
    remote_connection.RemoteConnection object. Defaults to ‘http://127.0.0.1:4444/wd/hub’.
  • desired_capabilities - A dictionary of capabilities to request when
    starting the browser session. Required parameter.
  • browser_profile - A selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_profile.FirefoxProfile object.
    Only used if Firefox is requested. Optional.
  • proxy - A selenium.webdriver.common.proxy.Proxy object. The browser session will
    be started with given proxy settings, if possible. Optional.
  • keep_alive - Whether to configure remote_connection.RemoteConnection to use
    HTTP keep-alive. Defaults to False.
  • file_detector - Pass custom file detector object during instantiation. If None,
    then default LocalFileDetector() will be used.
  • options - instance of a driver options.Options class
__repr__()
file_detector_context(file_detector_class, *args, **kwargs)

Overrides the current file detector (if necessary) in limited context. Ensures the original file detector is set afterwards.

Example:

with webdriver.file_detector_context(UselessFileDetector):
someinput.send_keys(‘/etc/hosts’)
Args:
  • file_detector_class - Class of the desired file detector. If the class is different
    from the current file_detector, then the class is instantiated with args and kwargs and used as a file detector during the duration of the context manager.
  • args - Optional arguments that get passed to the file detector class during
    instantiation.
  • kwargs - Keyword arguments, passed the same way as args.
mobile()
name()

Returns the name of the underlying browser for this instance.

Usage:name = driver.name
start_client()

Called before starting a new session. This method may be overridden to define custom startup behavior.

stop_client()

Called after executing a quit command. This method may be overridden to define custom shutdown behavior.

start_session(capabilities, browser_profile=None)

Creates a new session with the desired capabilities.

Args:
  • browser_name - The name of the browser to request.
  • version - Which browser version to request.
  • platform - Which platform to request the browser on.
  • javascript_enabled - Whether the new session should support JavaScript.
  • browser_profile - A selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_profile.FirefoxProfile object. Only used if Firefox is requested.
_wrap_value(value)
create_web_element(element_id)

Creates a web element with the specified element_id.

_unwrap_value(value)
execute(driver_command, params=None)

Sends a command to be executed by a command.CommandExecutor.

Args:
  • driver_command: The name of the command to execute as a string.
  • params: A dictionary of named parameters to send with the command.
Returns:

The command’s JSON response loaded into a dictionary object.

get(url)

Loads a web page in the current browser session.

title()

Returns the title of the current page.

Usage:title = driver.title
find_element_by_id(id_)

Finds an element by id.

Args:
  • id_ - The id of the element to be found.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = driver.find_element_by_id(‘foo’)

find_elements_by_id(id_)

Finds multiple elements by id.

Args:
  • id_ - The id of the elements to be found.
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:

elements = driver.find_elements_by_id(‘foo’)

find_element_by_xpath(xpath)

Finds an element by xpath.

Args:
  • xpath - The xpath locator of the element to find.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = driver.find_element_by_xpath(‘//div/td[1]’)

find_elements_by_xpath(xpath)

Finds multiple elements by xpath.

Args:
  • xpath - The xpath locator of the elements to be found.
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:

elements = driver.find_elements_by_xpath(“//div[contains(@class, ‘foo’)]”)

Finds an element by link text.

Args:
  • link_text: The text of the element to be found.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = driver.find_element_by_link_text(‘Sign In’)

Finds elements by link text.

Args:
  • link_text: The text of the elements to be found.
Returns:
  • list of webelement - a list with elements if any was found. an empty list if not
Usage:

elements = driver.find_elements_by_link_text(‘Sign In’)

Finds an element by a partial match of its link text.

Args:
  • link_text: The text of the element to partially match on.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = driver.find_element_by_partial_link_text(‘Sign’)

Finds elements by a partial match of their link text.

Args:
  • link_text: The text of the element to partial match on.
Returns:
  • list of webelement - a list with elements if any was found. an empty list if not
Usage:

elements = driver.find_elements_by_partial_link_text(‘Sign’)

find_element_by_name(name)

Finds an element by name.

Args:
  • name: The name of the element to find.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = driver.find_element_by_name(‘foo’)

find_elements_by_name(name)

Finds elements by name.

Args:
  • name: The name of the elements to find.
Returns:
  • list of webelement - a list with elements if any was found. an empty list if not
Usage:

elements = driver.find_elements_by_name(‘foo’)

find_element_by_tag_name(name)

Finds an element by tag name.

Args:
  • name - name of html tag (eg: h1, a, span)
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = driver.find_element_by_tag_name(‘h1’)

find_elements_by_tag_name(name)

Finds elements by tag name.

Args:
  • name - name of html tag (eg: h1, a, span)
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:

elements = driver.find_elements_by_tag_name(‘h1’)

find_element_by_class_name(name)

Finds an element by class name.

Args:
  • name: The class name of the element to find.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = driver.find_element_by_class_name(‘foo’)

find_elements_by_class_name(name)

Finds elements by class name.

Args:
  • name: The class name of the elements to find.
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:

elements = driver.find_elements_by_class_name(‘foo’)

find_element_by_css_selector(css_selector)

Finds an element by css selector.

Args:
  • css_selector - CSS selector string, ex: ‘a.nav#home’
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = driver.find_element_by_css_selector(‘#foo’)

find_elements_by_css_selector(css_selector)

Finds elements by css selector.

Args:
  • css_selector - CSS selector string, ex: ‘a.nav#home’
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:

elements = driver.find_elements_by_css_selector(‘.foo’)

execute_script(script, *args)

Synchronously Executes JavaScript in the current window/frame.

Args:
  • script: The JavaScript to execute.
  • *args: Any applicable arguments for your JavaScript.
Usage:

driver.execute_script(‘return document.title;’)

execute_async_script(script, *args)

Asynchronously Executes JavaScript in the current window/frame.

Args:
  • script: The JavaScript to execute.
  • *args: Any applicable arguments for your JavaScript.
Usage:
script = “var callback = arguments[arguments.length - 1]; ”

“window.setTimeout(function(){ callback(‘timeout’) }, 3000);”

driver.execute_async_script(script)

current_url()

Gets the URL of the current page.

Usage:driver.current_url
page_source()

Gets the source of the current page.

Usage:driver.page_source
close()

Closes the current window.

Usage:driver.close()
quit()

Quits the driver and closes every associated window.

Usage:driver.quit()
current_window_handle()

Returns the handle of the current window.

Usage:driver.current_window_handle
window_handles()

Returns the handles of all windows within the current session.

Usage:driver.window_handles
maximize_window()

Maximizes the current window that webdriver is using

fullscreen_window()

Invokes the window manager-specific ‘full screen’ operation

minimize_window()

Invokes the window manager-specific ‘minimize’ operation

switch_to()
Returns:
  • SwitchTo: an object containing all options to switch focus into
Usage:

element = driver.switch_to.active_element alert = driver.switch_to.alert driver.switch_to.default_content() driver.switch_to.frame(‘frame_name’) driver.switch_to.frame(1) driver.switch_to.frame(driver.find_elements_by_tag_name(“iframe”)[0]) driver.switch_to.parent_frame() driver.switch_to.window(‘main’)

switch_to_active_element()

Deprecated use driver.switch_to.active_element

switch_to_window(window_name)

Deprecated use driver.switch_to.window

switch_to_frame(frame_reference)

Deprecated use driver.switch_to.frame

switch_to_default_content()

Deprecated use driver.switch_to.default_content

switch_to_alert()

Deprecated use driver.switch_to.alert

back()

Goes one step backward in the browser history.

Usage:driver.back()
forward()

Goes one step forward in the browser history.

Usage:driver.forward()
refresh()

Refreshes the current page.

Usage:driver.refresh()
get_cookies()

Returns a set of dictionaries, corresponding to cookies visible in the current session.

Usage:driver.get_cookies()

Get a single cookie by name. Returns the cookie if found, None if not.

Usage:driver.get_cookie(‘my_cookie’)

Deletes a single cookie with the given name.

Usage:driver.delete_cookie(‘my_cookie’)
delete_all_cookies()

Delete all cookies in the scope of the session.

Usage:driver.delete_all_cookies()

Adds a cookie to your current session.

Args:
  • cookie_dict: A dictionary object, with required keys - “name” and “value”;
    optional keys - “path”, “domain”, “secure”, “expiry”
Usage:
driver.add_cookie({‘name’ : ‘foo’, ‘value’ : ‘bar’}) driver.add_cookie({‘name’ : ‘foo’, ‘value’ : ‘bar’, ‘path’ : ‘/’}) driver.add_cookie({‘name’ : ‘foo’, ‘value’ : ‘bar’, ‘path’ : ‘/’, ‘secure’:True})
implicitly_wait(time_to_wait)
Sets a sticky timeout to implicitly wait for an element to be found,
or a command to complete. This method only needs to be called one time per session. To set the timeout for calls to execute_async_script, see set_script_timeout.
Args:
  • time_to_wait: Amount of time to wait (in seconds)
Usage:

driver.implicitly_wait(30)

set_script_timeout(time_to_wait)
Set the amount of time that the script should wait during an
execute_async_script call before throwing an error.
Args:
  • time_to_wait: The amount of time to wait (in seconds)
Usage:

driver.set_script_timeout(30)

set_page_load_timeout(time_to_wait)
Set the amount of time to wait for a page load to complete
before throwing an error.
Args:
  • time_to_wait: The amount of time to wait
Usage:

driver.set_page_load_timeout(30)

find_element(by=None, value=None)

‘Private’ method used by the find_element_by_* methods.

Usage:Use the corresponding find_element_by_* instead of this.
Return type:WebElement
find_elements(by=None, value=None)

‘Private’ method used by the find_elements_by_* methods.

Usage:Use the corresponding find_elements_by_* instead of this.
Return type:list of WebElement
desired_capabilities()

returns the drivers current desired capabilities being used

get_screenshot_as_file(filename)
Saves a screenshot of the current window to a PNG image file. Returns
False if there is any IOError, else returns True. Use full paths in your filename.
Args:
  • filename: The full path you wish to save your screenshot to. This should end with a .png extension.
Usage:

driver.get_screenshot_as_file(‘/Screenshots/foo.png’)

save_screenshot(filename)
Saves a screenshot of the current window to a PNG image file. Returns
False if there is any IOError, else returns True. Use full paths in your filename.
Args:
  • filename: The full path you wish to save your screenshot to. This should end with a .png extension.
Usage:

driver.save_screenshot(‘/Screenshots/foo.png’)

get_screenshot_as_png()

Gets the screenshot of the current window as a binary data.

Usage:driver.get_screenshot_as_png()
get_screenshot_as_base64()
Gets the screenshot of the current window as a base64 encoded string
which is useful in embedded images in HTML.
Usage:driver.get_screenshot_as_base64()
set_window_size(width, height, windowHandle="current")

Sets the width and height of the current window. (window.resizeTo)

Args:
  • width: the width in pixels to set the window to
  • height: the height in pixels to set the window to
Usage:

driver.set_window_size(800,600)

get_window_size(windowHandle="current")

Gets the width and height of the current window.

Usage:driver.get_window_size()
set_window_position(x, y, windowHandle="current")

Sets the x,y position of the current window. (window.moveTo)

Args:
  • x: the x-coordinate in pixels to set the window position
  • y: the y-coordinate in pixels to set the window position
Usage:

driver.set_window_position(0,0)

get_window_position(windowHandle="current")

Gets the x,y position of the current window.

Usage:driver.get_window_position()
get_window_rect()

Gets the x, y coordinates of the window as well as height and width of the current window.

Usage:driver.get_window_rect()
set_window_rect(x=None, y=None, width=None, height=None)

Sets the x, y coordinates of the window as well as height and width of the current window.

Usage:driver.set_window_rect(x=10, y=10) driver.set_window_rect(width=100, height=200) driver.set_window_rect(x=10, y=10, width=100, height=200)
file_detector()
file_detector(detector)

Set the file detector to be used when sending keyboard input. By default, this is set to a file detector that does nothing.

see FileDetector see LocalFileDetector see UselessFileDetector

Args:
  • detector: The detector to use. Must not be None.
orientation()

Gets the current orientation of the device

Usage:orientation = driver.orientation
orientation(value)

Sets the current orientation of the device

Args:
  • value: orientation to set it to.
Usage:

driver.orientation = ‘landscape’

application_cache()

Returns a ApplicationCache Object to interact with the browser app cache

log_types()

Gets a list of the available log types

Usage:driver.log_types
get_log(log_type)

Gets the log for a given log type

Args:
  • log_type: type of log that which will be returned
Usage:

driver.get_log(‘browser’) driver.get_log(‘driver’) driver.get_log(‘client’) driver.get_log(‘server’)